nifoxipam has potential use for the short-term treatment of anxiety, insomnia, acute seizures, and the sedation of hospitalized patients. however, it is currently exclusively sold by online research chemical vendors for use as a recreational psychoactive substance.
subjective effects include anxiety suppression, disinhibition, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, muscle relaxing, and amnesia. the effects of nifoxipam are notably long-lived, although reported to be relatively subtle.
it is worth noting that the sudden discontinuation of benzodiazepines can be potentially dangerous or life-threatening for individuals using regularly for extended periods of time, sometimes resulting in seizures or death. it is highly recommended to taper one’s dose by gradually lowering the amount taken each day for a prolonged period of time instead of stopping abruptly.
as with other benzodiazepines, nifoxipam has abuse potential and produces dependence with prolonged use. additionally, very little data exists about its metabolism, pharmacology, and toxicity. it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
nifoxipam is a drug of the benzodiazepine class. benzodiazepine drugs contain a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring, which is a seven membered ring with the two nitrogen constituents located at r1 and r4. nifoxipam, or 3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepam, is an active metabolite of flunitrazepam. the benzyl ring of nifoxipam is substituted at r7 with a nitro group, no2-. ar2flourine substituted phenyl ring is bound to this structure at r5. additionally, nifoxipam contains a hydroxy (oh-) group substituted at r3. nifoxipam also contains an oxygen group double bonded to r2 of its diazepine ring to form a ketone. this oxygen substitution at r2 is shared with benzodiazepine drugs with the suffix -azepam.
as with flunitrazepam, nifoxipam is likely insoluble in water, although the addition of a hydroxyl group may increase water solubility.
benzodiazepines produce a variety of effects by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor site and magnifying the efficiency and effects of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (gaba) by acting on its receptors. as this site is the most prolific inhibitory receptor set within the brain, its modulation results in the sedating (or calming effects) of nifoxipam on the nervous system.
the anticonvulsant properties of benzodiazepines may be, in part or entirely, due to binding to voltage-dependent sodium channels rather than benzodiazepine receptors.