|Common names||Dilaudid, Jurnista, Palladone|
hydromorphone (also known by the brand name dilaudid in the united states) is a semisynthetic opioid of the morphinan chemical class that produces analgesic and euphoric effects when administered. it is occasionally prescribed for use in the management of moderate to severe pain and is structurally similar to other opioids such as morphine and heroin.
hydromorphone is commonly used in a medical setting, mostly intravenously due its very low oral, rectal, and intranasal bioavailability.
if using this substance intravenously in a non-medical, recreational setting, the safer injection guide should be followed along with all harm reduction practices. sublingual administration is also considered to be superior to oral administration in due to its increased bioavailability; however, hydromorphone is bitter and hydrophilic so it is absorbed poorly and slowly through mouth membranes.
hydromorphone is an opioid of the morphinan class. hydromorphone and other molecules of this class contain a polycyclic core of three benzene rings fused in a zig-zag pattern called phenanthrene. a fourth nitrogen containing ring is fused to the phenanthrene at r9 and r13 with the nitrogen member looking at r17 of the combined structure. this structure is called morphinan. hydromorphone is a hydrogenated ketone of morphine and thus is extremely similar in structure.
it is a derivative of morphine; to be specific, it is a hydrogenated ketone thereof. comparatively, hydromorphone is to morphine as hydrocodone is to codeine—that is, also a semi-synthetic drug.
hydromorphone molecules exert their effects by binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptor as an agonist. this occurs due to the way in which opioids structurally mimic endogenous endorphins. endorphins are responsible for analgesia, sedation, and cognitive euphoria along with physical euphoria. they can be released in response to pain, strenuous exercise, orgasm, or excitement. this mimicking of natural endorphins results in the drug’s euphoric, analgesic (pain relief), and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effects.
the recreational effects of this compound, including cognitive euphoria and physical euphoria, occur because opioids structurally mimic endogenous endorphins which are naturally produced within the body and are also active on the μ-opioid receptor set in the brain. the way in which synthetic opioids such as heroin structurally mimic these natural endorphins results in their euphoric, pain relief and anxiolytic effects. this is because natural endorphins are responsible for reducing pain, causing sedation, and feelings of pleasure. the natural endorphins can be released in response to pain, strenuous exercise, orgasm, or general excitement.